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1. Direkte sitat

Hvis du bruker en illustrasjon eller et sitat, skal du oppgi nøyaktig hvor i kildedokumentet de finnes (dvs. sidetall, i tillegg til forfatter og årstall)

Eksempel på sitat: Du skriver i din egen tekst: “Å analysera vil seia å løysa opp heilskapen i ein tekst” sier Eiliv Vinje (1993, s. 29).

I litteraturlisten bakerst i oppgaven må du skrive følgende:

Vinje, E. Tekst og tolking. Oslo, Gyldendal, 1993.

2. Indirekte sitat
Hvis du ikke siterer direkte, men likevel refererer til noe du har funnet i en kilde, bør du også oppgi kilde.

Du skriver i teksten: Sosialisering er å tilpasse seg samfunnets skrevne og uskrevne regler (Haraldsen og Ryssevik, 2009).

I litteraturlisten bakerst i oppgaven må du skrive følgende:

Haraldsen, M. og J. Ryssevik. Fokus samfunnsfag. Oslo, Aschehoug, 2009

3. Internett
Dersom du henter kilden fra Internett, skal du henvise på følgende måte:

Du skriver i teksten: Isen i Arktis er på sitt tynneste siden målingene startet i 1979 (,13.4.09)

I litteraturlisten bakerst i oppgaven må du skrive følgende: Isen i Arktis blir stadig tynnere. 13.4.09

Når du skriver en oppgave og bruker ulike kilder; bøker, avisartikler, internettsider eller annet, så skal du alltid oppgi hvilke kilder du har brukt ved å lage en litteraturliste bakerst i oppgaven din.

Det er mange ulike måter å lage litteraturlister på. Hensikten med dem er at det skal være lett å finne tilbake til kildene du har brukt. Litteraturlisten skal føres alfabetisk. Nedenfor finner du eksempler på hvordan du skal gjøre det i oppgaver på Ulsrud videregående skole.

Bøker Litteraturliste skrives etter følgende mal: Forfatter (Etternavn, Fornavn). Tittel. Sted, forlag, år.


* Grieg, N. Veien frem: Artikler i utvalg. Oslo, Gyldendal, 1974.

* Haraldsen, M. og J. Ryssevik. Fokus samfunnsfag. Oslo, Aschehoug, 2009

* Vinje, E. Tekst og tolking. Oslo, Gyldendal, 1993.

Internett Internettadresse (url).Tittel. Navnet på nettstedet/nettsiden du har brukt. Datoen du har besøkt siden.

Eksempler: * Isen i Arktis blir stadig tynnere. 13.4.09

Samfunnsfaglig Engelsk – Dracula

Posted i kategorien Engelsk | Samfunnsfaglig engelsk on the 17.02.2012
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The novel Dracula is written by an Irish author named Bram Stoker. Dracula was first published in 1897. The book is about the mysterious vampire named Count Dracula of Transylvania in search of blood in London.

The novel is written in diary and letter form, which was a common form in Victorian times. This form is also found for example in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and Robert Louis Stevenson’s Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.


Jonathan Harker is sent by his law firm to Transylvania to assist their new client, Count Dracula, who wish to settle in England. The journey is long and dangerous, and he is constantly warned by unknown people the farther east he travels. On reaching, he soon count’s capture. Harker first discovers the Count’s fascination with blood, his superhuman physical strength, he does not need to eat, he lives alone in the castle with servants, that he has no reflection, that his sleep in coffins, that he can summon wolf packs at their disposal, and that everything in his castle is ancient, often several hundred years. These discoveries have Harker to realize that something is not right, and he realizes eventually that the Count is a supernatural being. He acknowledged that the count has evil intentions of moving to England.
Dracula is planning to move to England to get more minions. He wants to turn them into vampires. He does this by biting their victims in the neck. The victims are becoming vampires and receive eternal life, such as Dracula himself.
The book is written in diary and letter form of storytelling people, including attorney Jonathan Harker, the doctor, John Seward, Mina Harker (Jonathan Harkers wife), and physician and Professor Abraham Van Helsing. Dracula himself has no journal entries, but is described by the other person’s notes.

Diary entries, letters and articles describing Dracula’s ravages on his many trips to England, without some people know that he is going on (see the book’s diary and letter form in first person). A driving force in history is that Dracula bites Mina Harkers girlfriend Lucy Wersternra, so she eventually turned into a vampire. This transformation process is first expressed as a serious case of illness, and Seward is called in to help Lucy in her capacity as a doctor. He can not figure out what is wrong with Lucy on his own, so he sends for his old friend and mentor Van Helsing, a prominent Dutch physician. The reader is given the impression through the diary entries and letters that van Helsing knows more about Lucy’s disease cases than what he told Seward. Through Seward’s diary entries, the reader acquainted with the psychiatric patient Renfield. It comes out later that even this man is one of Dracula’s victims and his lackey.
During this time, Jonathan Harker returned from Transylvania, severely traumatized after a long captivity in Dracula. His wife Mina go up to see him, and since she is a friend of Lucy, she is also founder of Relationship with Seward and Van Helsing and their friends.
As said, however, Van Helsing Seward what he knows about vampires, and that they have to chop off the head of the now-dead Lucy and arm holes in her heart with a trestaur so that she dies on normal if and not a bloodthirsty vampire such as Dracula . Van Helsing says that if they kill count, then all his vampire works cease to exist. Together starts John Seward, Van Helsing, Mina and Jonathan Harker, Arthur Holmwood and Quincy the process of putting an end to Dracula’s evil and kill him once and for all.

Main Characters in the novel

Jonathan Harker – lawyer, sent to help Count Dracula in connection with the purchase of properties in England.
Count Dracula – the novel’s villain, bloodthirsty vampire with eternal life. He isn’t a vampire, he’s THE vampire. His powers can make him turn into a wolf, a bat, rats, and mist. He can also control the weather, particularly storms, he can walk down the side of walls, and he can command the vermin of the Earth. He has supernatural strength and can move so fast that mortal eyes can’t even see him. Unlike many vampires, he can easily walk around in daytime, although it weakens him.
Mina Murray – Jonathan Harkers girlfriend and later his wife, as Mina Harker.
Lucy Westernra – Mina and Jonathan’s girlfriend, turns later into a vampire.

John Seward – doctor, head of a psychiatric department and suitor of Lucy Westernra. Also known as Jack.
Abraham Van Helsing – a doctor and professor, friend and former teacher of Seward.

Arthur Holmwood – friend of John Seward, courting and later Lucy Westernras bride husband. Also referred to as Lord Godalming.
Quincy Morris – adventurer and professional military, friend of John Seward and Arthur Holmwood.
Renfield – patient at the psychiatric department and Seward Dracula’s lackey.

There are two special themes that recur in the Dracula, that many movies that are based on the novel focus on. And it’s eroticism and marriage. These are two issues one was particularly interested in the many English Victorian and romantic novels in the 1800s.

The novel is in many ways described as an erotic novel. Count Dracula flees just from Transylvania to England to to find a new home and more young girls as he can suck the life force out of and turn them to their lovers. Moreover, he has three other vampires to live in his castle and they’re just three young, beautiful women (one is blond, the other a brunette while the third is dark hair) as their lovers. The novel is full of erotic scenes, including a between Dracula and his victims. But Jonathan Harker, who subsequently married to Mina, will experience an erotic scene between the three female vampires (which is a typical man’s dream!).

For this reason, the novel also seen as a novel that takes up the marital security. Count Dracula has, like vampires in general, not a mirror image, mirrors or shiny objects. We see in him that is not human, in addition to being a Casanova and “playmaker” who are looking for sex. Van Helsing, as Dracula’s nemesis, is seen as the novel’s father figure and the “priest” who are fighting against people seeking frivolous relationships outside of marriage. By Van Helsing sticks a tree dagger into the heart and cut off the head of the love hungry vampire who mislead the beautiful Mina Harker, is to let the young and conventional lovers (Jonathan and Mina Harker) have a normal marriage and prevent more comes in the same situation.


Engelsk – Marketing (words, definitions and phrases)

Posted i kategorien Engelsk on the 10.02.2012
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Consumer: The final user of a product. Not necessarily the same person that buys the product. End of the distributing channel.

Costumer: the person that buys the good or service from a business

Sampling: When a small group of people is researched to draw conclusions about the population as a whole.

Product life cycle: A theory which predicts the stages a product goes through from introduction to withdrawal from a market.

Advertising: paid-for communication, aimed at informing or persuading.

Goods: tangible products that can be touched and consumed.

Market share: the proportion of a market that is owned by a specific business, product or brand.

Brand: any recognizable name, logo or symbol that identifies a product.

Distribution channel: how a business gets its products to the end consumer

Questionnaire: used in a market research, a list of questions aimed at gathering information.

Market segment: a group of customers within the overall market characteristics and needs.

Retailer: buys a product from manufacturers and wholesalers and sells onto consumers

Demand: created when customers want a product and are prepared to pay for it

Lesson 1

Product orientated: care more about the product

Consumer orientated: Care about why the consumer wants to buy.

Marketing mix: 4 P’s; Price, Product, Place, Promotion

Price: determines how much money the customer will be charged when they buy the good or service.

Place: focuses on where a firm’s product is sold.

Promotion: the range of methods by which a business makes its products known to costumers.

4 C’s: Cost, Communication, Costumer, Conventions (how easy it is to get)

Niche: small target market, limited number of costumers

Mass: large market

Loss leader: no profit, sold for less than its cost in order to attract customers into a store.

Internal: in the company (internt)

External: market and the world outside

The buying process: AIDA (Awareness, Interest, Desire, Action)

Penetration pricing: a price strategy which set the entry price of a product much lower

than the normal market price to attract new customers.

Price skimming: a price strategy which set the entry price of a product much higher than the normal market price, for then to lower the price over time.

Lesson 2 and 3

SMART: Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time bound

Ansoff matrix: Marketing strategies

Boston matrix: Product portfolio

Consumer market: Selling to public

International market: selling away from domestic market
Business (B2B): business selling to other business

Sub-cultures: Smaller group of people who have similar type of views. E.g. students

Cultural shift: when the culture changes or reaching a new class.

Census: every 10 years (2011)

Remote working: software/technological advances.

Customer’s drivers: costumers are demanding your product abroad, and there’s a market for it.

Competitive forces: too strong competition where you’re at.

PESTLE: Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal , Environmental

Lesson 4

Gap market: see a gap that no one has filled. New target segment.

Segmentation: The process of dividing up customers into groups based on their different needs or wants.

Residential: Geographical location and demographics.

Lesson 5

The 5 C’s: Climate, Customers, Company, Competitors, Collaborator

Macro: All the things that influence your company. Things you cannot control, anything that’s happening in the world.

SWOT: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats

Micro: things closer to your business, things you can do something about.

Lesson 6

Product line: range of products

Monopoly: is in theory a single producer in a market, but in practice a firm with a market share of 25% or more.

Oligopoly: is a market dominated by a small number of large businesses, known as oligopolists.

Cartel: a group of firms that come together to agree price and output levels in an industry. It is Illegal in the UK, but they’re often difficult to detect.

Monopolistic competition: where a large number of firms are competing in a market, each having enough product differentiation to achieve a degree of monopoly power and therefore some control over the price they charge.

Perfect competition: where there is a large number of sellers and buyers, all of which are too small to influence the price of the product.

Lesson 7, 8and 9

Quantitative: data (how old are you, how often, how much etc.).

Qualitative: opinion (would you, why, how is that?)

Stakeholders: people who have interest in the company

Point of sale: consumer makes contact with the product

Merchandising:  how the product is sold to you – Desire

Word of mouth: viral

Personal selling: occurs where an individual salesperson sells a product, service or solution to a client. Involves the development of longstanding client relationships.

Retailing: the selling of goods to consumers on which retail margins are earned and performance bonuses gained.

Direct selling: person-to-person, seller to costumer rather than costumer to shop.

The national trade association: direct selling company you’re joining that, if you are buying something from a company that belongs to this, you know it’s good and reliable.

Retail strategy: Their plan for getting their products in the right stores and reaching. Place price and promotion in marketing mix.

Pyramid selling: Illegal scheme where you sell to someone for profit, and then they sell it onwards to someone else. Selling on, usually a rubbish product to a large amount of people.

Suggested retail price: The price which is suggested or recommended to have in the store. SRP in a bracket, quite high, allows retailers to discount and make customers believe they’re saving.

Mission statement: Goals and aims. Objectives. This needs to be SMART.

Patent: product – cant patent something that is too general

TM: for the brand name

Inelastic: put the price up and people will still buy it

Elastic: put the price up and people won’t buy it

Unit elastic: stay same

Engelsk – Republicans and Democrats (Pro-Democratic)

Posted i kategorien Engelsk on the 08.02.2012
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What do the Republicans and the Democrats stand for?

Republicans stand for big monopolies and corporations and welfare to them, (they claim moral values but do nothing but talk about them–no action), vote fraud, big money interests, war profiteering, huge military spending and budgets (but cuts to vets programs), government waste (like losing over a trillion defense dollars, tax cuts to the rich, support for business over citizens rights in lawsuits, lack of concern to the least among us, big wasteful spending deficits, joblessness and outsourcing, management over workers, corporate media monopolies, predatory lending, credit card companies over people, torture.

The democrats stand for small businesses, civil rights, peace and justice, tolerance, helping the poor, universal health care, a living wage, balancing the budget, the environment, unions and laborers over management, campaign reform, public funding of elections, public schools and television, peace (unless war is absolutely necessary), social security, organic farming and non-genetic modified foods, no logging or drilling on public lands and parks, bankruptcy protection, poverty, animal rights, voting rights, clean water, clean air, aid to foreign countries in need, peace treaties (not breaking them all like Dubya did), honoring the Geneva convention.

Engelsk – Great Britain

Posted i kategorien Engelsk on the 04.02.2012
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The Victorian Age (1837-1901)

– For 63 yearsVictoria, at 18 years, remained Queen of Britain after 1837. (Until 1901)

-CrystalPalace,RoyalAlbertMuseum, theScienceMuseumand the Geological Museum

– The Queen proclaimed the Empress of India in 1877.India-the “brightest jewel”

– The V. Age – social improvement at home. Parliament taking care of the less rich society


World War 1 (1914-1918)

–         Britainentered August 1914 on the winning side

–          WW shatteredBritain-> about 750’000 soldiers died. Ships were sunk too

–          Economical needs


World War 2 (1939-1945)

–          3. sepBritaindeclared war againstGermany

–          British Prime Minister Winston Churchill at the peak

–         GermanydefeatedFranceleavingBritainalone

–          The war had cost 360’000 British live,Londonand other cities were totally bombed out

–          Economy again was shattered andBritainlost its international supremacy toUSAand SU. In 1945 they were the super-powers, andBritainwas not included


British Welfare

–          With the country’s economy still in shambles the plan of a welfare state came up

–          This “welfare state” became a model to other countries

–          Margaret Thatcher became PM in 1979

–          PM launched a policy of drastic cuts in public spending.(accused for ruining the W.S.)

–          The British welfare has not been as generous as it once was after the 1980’s regime


Loosing an Empire

–          After WW2 colonies in Africa andAsiagot out of control and independent

–          1947 – >India and Pakistan, independent within the Commonwealth

–          Colonies fell from 50s to 60s and in the en of 1960s the Empire was clearly gone

–          Hong Kong was also handed back toChinain 1997

–          In the 20th century only Gibraltar and the Falkland Islands remained, with a number of small islands andBritain’s holdings   inAntarctica

–          N. Ireland has belonged toBritainsince 1922 and still remains

–          British almost let the colonies go without any fights

–         CanadaandAustraliahave chosen to retain the British Queen as their head of state

–          1973, EU member, still have not given up the pound


Multicultural Britain

–         Britainalso needed extra labour to rebuild the country

–          In the 1950s immigrants arrived from the colonies and ex-colonies

–          Afro-Caribbeans already spoke English, and they were large in number

–          The immigrants settled down inLondonand other cities and did work British workers were not interested in

–           1960s and the early 1970s a large number came fromPakistan,India,BangladeshandSri Lanka

–          Their arrival was seen by scepticism because of religion and language

–          Immigrants fromAsiapicked up low-paying jobs

–          Immigration from theThird Worldhas been restricted now

–         Eastern Europeis still immigrating because of EU


Europe or the USA?

–          Since WW2 Britain is torn between Europe, USA and the Commonwealth

–          PM Tony Blair has followed Americans in several int. conflicts

–          After 9.11Britainhas supported the “War on Terror”

–          Troops has participated inAfghanistanand the war inIraq